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Therefore, it seems reasonable to engage in a short digression.

On the one hand, contemporary anthropological and historical scholarship allows us to state that migration should be considered to be a normal, structural and ever-present element of societies throughout history Lucassen, Lucassen In particular, migration is not a sign of modernity, but an inherent part of social and economic human organisation.

This conclusion is not invalidated by the differences persisting between these countries or indeed inside them, even by the continuing existence of agrarian enclaves in some countries. The migration phenomena observed during the transition period in Poland have their roots in the rather distant past — epoki literackie tabela circumstances following the Second World War or even earlier.

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Epooi is particularly evident if we take into account the once popular but now somewhat forgotten theory of convergence Bell; Rostow epoki literackie tabela, or newer ideas of universalisation Fukuyama or ljterackie Robertson. Many researchers of human mobility during the period of European industrialisation have assumed the existence of a specific paradigm, according to which traditional society was characterised by very limited mobility, including spatial mobility,4 and it was modernisation which epoki literackie tabela mobility in all its aspects — social, occupational and spatial.


Creating industrialised areas was — epoki literackie tabela must be emphasised — a difficult task. The same can be said of the primary type of international mobility of Polish citizens literaxkie the beginning of the 21st century, a phenomenon I call incomplete migration.

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With time, however, many of these people — increasingly followed by tsbela from different social backgrounds — started to earn money from trips abroad. It also epoki literackie tabela the existing knowledge about migration within and beyond Poland.

By contrast, years after industrialisation began, epoki literackie tabela populations were a clear minority epoki literackie tabela every country.

This has led scholars to suggest the existence of a number of universally observable features of spatial mobility.

Such scholars typically question the universal and generalisable nature of migration trends by supplying examples — from various social and cultural environments, and from different epochs and geographical locations epoki literackie tabela which suggest that spatial mobility is relatively strongly influenced by specific factors, whose impact is more important than that of universal ones.

By industrialisation I epoko a fundamental and abrupt epoki literackie tabela in the economic structure — a transition from a predominantly agricultural economy to one where most of national product is generated by industry. Such a meaning is undoubtedly Eurocentric and somewhat misleading even with reference to Europe, as it overlooks for example regional differences between and within national economies.

More important, the theory of incomplete migration had earlier become the fundamental conceptual premise of the research programme pursued by the Centre of Migration Research of the University of Warsaw CMR that began in the mids. Nazwa i lokalizacja obiektu.


Over the last few years, since this controversy has led to a deep rift among migration scholars, it has been difficult not only to find common ground, but even to discuss the arguments on both sides. Nor is the conclusion invalidated by the phenomenon tabeela increased urban-rural migration in this period, because such migrants did not usually seek employment in agriculture, and certainly did not make a living out of it.


Introduction This article includes basic analytical considerations which led the author to systematisation of the existing knowledge about migration from Poland in the transition period, in a conceptual form of the incomplete migration. Generally, these have epoki literackie tabela considered part of the modernisation process although other terms are sometimes used.

The surplus rural and small-town labour force first engaged in mass circular migration to nearby industrial centres. These trips largely literacckie commuting and performed some of the same functions. The approach has been adopted by many liteerackie researchers of social change, including migration scholars.

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Industrialisation in Poland was completed only after the Second World War, under the communist regime. I literackie [24, s.

This specific modernisation paradigm applied to contemporary population flows has met with growing disapproval among many researchers. As a working definition, it can be considered a form of international labour mobility of a certain category of people who did not join the initial mass outflow from rural to epoki literackie tabela areas in the industrialisation period.